Several kinds of physical theories emerged in ancient Greece, including both generalized hypotheses about the ultimate structure of nature and more specific theories that considered the problem of motion from both metaphysical and mathematical points of view. Attempting to reconcile the antithesis between the underlying unity and apparent multitude and diversity of nature, the Greek atomists Leucippus (mid-5th century bce), Democritus (late 5th century bce), and Epicurus (late 4th and early 3rd century bce) asserted that nature consists of immutable atoms moving in empty space. According to this theory, the various motions and configurations of atoms and clusters of atoms are the causes of all the phenomena of nature.
In contrast to the particulate universe of the atomists, the Stoics (principally Zeno, of Citium, bridging 4th and 3rd centuries bce, Chrysippus [3rd century bce], and Poseidonius of Apamea [flourished c. 100 bce]) insisted on the continuity of nature, conceiving of both space and matter as continuous and as infused with an active, airlike spirit—pneuma—which serves to unify the frame of nature. The inspiration for the Stoic emphasis on pneumatic
Physical science, the systematic study of the inorganic world, as distinct from the study of the organic world, which is the province of biological science. Physical science is ordinarily thought of as consisting of four broad areas: astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the Earth sciences. Each of these is in turn divided into fields and subfields. This article discusses the historical development—with due attention to the scope, principal concerns, and methods—of the first three of these areas. The Earth sciences are discussed in a separate article.
Physics, in its modern sense, was founded in the mid-19th century as a synthesis of several older sciences—namely, those of mechanics, optics, acoustics, electricity, magnetism, heat, and the physical properties of matter. The synthesis was based in large part on the recognition that the different forces of nature are related and are, in fact, interconvertible because they are forms of energy.
The boundary between physics and chemistry is somewhat arbitrary. As it developed in the 20th century, physics is concerned with the structure and behaviour of individual atoms and their components, while chemistry deals with
No matter what has been your career choice, one of the keys to professional success is to have a good writing. If you have problems with writing, continues this series of tips.
Learn to write correctly and capture the attention of your readers is not a task as simple as it seems. Great writers spend years perfecting their techniques and know that practice makes perfect when it comes about to good writing. Here in this article, I share with you 10 tips to improve your writing and help you to perfect your essay.
1. Practice daily
If you want to reach a good level of writing it is imperative that you train everyday writing, even in a diary. According to the professional, you should write at least 500 to 800 words per day to improve your knowledge of writing.
2. Write with passion
If there is something that separates well from great writers, it is the passion that turns towards their work. When you really care about what you’re counting your readers perceive it. If you want to write the best essay then write with your own passion, which will make you unique from others.
3. Use your imagination
Imagination is the most valuable resource that
CV or resume is the very first document your possible future employer sees, therefore it is the most important stage of the job seeking process. We must understand that it would take seconds to form the opinion about future candidate. So your CV must impress your future or potential employer. There are few rules to follow and make sure that you have produced a well presented, accurate and concise CV. It will give you an option to succeed in your interview.
1.Create your CV yourself. It has to represent you,the way you use your language and obviously interviewers are going to ask you questions so that they will find out whether the CV is your own or not anyway.
The best way is to start your perfect CV with your name and contact details. Date of birth, marital status and nationality are not important unless required.
Some people think the best way to continue CV is to include personal profile message to make a great impression but that’s a big question. Nine times out of ten they just skip it.
2.Therefore the second important rule is to put your key achievements first and let it show
Workshops of any sort are fun and instructive because you don’t feel the strain of learning and yet you are imbibing quite a lot. An engaging learning environment comes with all the paraphernalia that you want—flexibility, stimulation, freedom—-and much more. Children love workshops better than classrooms and that’s not to be wondered at!! So school science workshops are the icing on the cake for them as they prefer to learn by doing and seeing.
What do they do?
School science workshops help in child development as their little minds work in the way they want them to. In fact, going a step further, rather than being taught in the stuffy environs of the classroom, they take charge of how they learn and what they learn. This makes them more focused in their approach as they are exercising their gray cells all the time.
Nothing can equal learning first hand and by personal experience—children become better learners this way, they understand faster and they learn to think for themselves. Each child’s mind operates in a different way and takes a different path and workshops are a great place to tease those gray cells and discover
College is an extremely important section of your life. This is the time to have fun, but this is also the time to learn and lay the foundations of your future. While in college you will go through a plentitude of experiences, make new friends, cry and laugh alike. There are several tips available that can help you make your college years a truly fabulous experience.
Join clubs/sports life
Be active in college, and learn to live healthily. You need good energy and a healthy body and mind. Therefore, join clubs and sports life activities available on campus. Make sure you will get engaged in physical activities at last 2 or 3 times per week. Choose whatever you like from soccer to basketball, and up to yoga and Pilates classes. Stay fit and healthy, because you will need your strength and clear mind throughout college…
You should get a job
While in college you need money you can spend. Obviously, your family cannot send you enough money so that you can have all the fun in the world. Taking out a loan is also not such
Owning a nail salon can be a rewarding and lucrative business, but there are many things you should be aware before you endeavor upon starting your own nail salon. From your business plan to what licensing you to need, there are many things to take into consideration before going into business. Here’s a list of things you should know before opening your own nail salon.
You need to write a clear business plan
There are many business plan templates available on the internet. Be sure to use one to write a clear and well thought-out business plan. This is not just important for getting a small business loan or to show to your investors, it’s also an important way to keep your business goals on track.
You need to estimate your startup costs
It is important to have a clear idea of what the actual startup cost for your business is, be sure to factor in equipment, computer systems, your payroll, rent and utilities. Make sure whatever you estimate you add 25% to cover all the unexpected expenses.
Obtain capital to start your business
If there’s one thing that kids love, it’s science experiments. And while they will be taught some during their school classes, there is even more science fun to be had at home! We’ve put together a great science experiment which you and your kids can do at home that doesn’t require a lot of ingredients, just a sense of fun and adventure!
Active Erupting Volcano!
This is a great activity that matches science fun and mess, so make sure you’re not wearing your best clothes. Our advice is to head to the Macy’s Groupon Coupons page and pick up a deal on some basic essential clothing items that you don’t mind getting messy.
Now you’re ready to start!
What you will need:
- A volcano (quickly made from paper mache or plaster)
- An old film container, a pill bottle of even an empty baby food jar
- Some red or yellow food coloring
- A regular spoonful of dishwashing soap
- Two spoonfuls of baking soda
- Paper mache will likely be the easiest and quickest way to make the shell of a volcano, or if you don’t have the ingredients, making a mound of dirt outside will do the trick.
- Place your chosen
Choosing good preschool for your kid is essential considering its benefit in their later life. You may not realize about this, but kids with proper education in their early life tend to have no problem to achieve their future career, the truth, it is not the only thing, when it comes to salary they get, it even better compared to kids without proper early education. Indeed, there are some other factors that include, still those kids that experience good preschool on their earlier age, they won’t have any problem toward drugs or some.
See? That is why, be sure that you spare some time when looking for a preschool in Thornton CO. Surely, it sounds simple, even though it is not for its practice. However, guess what? Tips for Thornton’s preschool inhere can be your consideration to notice good preschool that is available in Thornton CO. For starter, pay close attention toward their curriculum. Even though learning ABC’s and 123’s, you consider as important, but if the school not balance it with adequate play time. It is not worth your consideration.
Good preschool, aside from the games that are set to be played by
What are the best beef recipes? For those who love beef so much that must be a very common question they have on mind. But, don’t you curious as well? The truth, there is nothing the best when it comes to beef recipes, why? Since all of the recipes are the best depending on one’s preference. So then, when you look for such a beef recipe, though it is okay to simply hit the search engine and look for some, but it will be easier if you ask yourself about your preference.
You know, there are thousands of beef recipes out there, if you can’t narrow down your option, it will very hard to choose one. However, suppose that you love a combination of beef and mushroom, you better try this beef recipe. In fact, you should try this recipe not only because it is delicious, but it is also very easy to cook. So then, you who simply start to cook beef can try the recipe without hassle. Now, aside from beef and mushroom that you need for the recipe, there are another ingredients you should prepare.
Speak for it, you will need,
The importance of the physical environment in which children are given an opportunity to learn the basic skills of life, is that the design of the learning arena should be such that it encourages children in engaging in explorations that are self driven and not directed by others. In simple words, children should not only feel comfortable in the given environment but should be so much at ease that they would be motivated to be their own drivers. If the physical environment is not directed at supporting the development of infants, chances are that the infants and toddlers would waste their time by engaging in activities directed by the teacher or simple wander aimlessly, thereby wasting the learning opportunity. When infants are not properly engaged, it can lead to aggressive behavior with the teacher behaving like a policeman most of the time.
Well designed classroom
Having accepted the fact that the physical setting of a school for infants and toddlers can affect the children and caregivers alike and has huge influence on their mutual interactions, one might wonder what exactly is meant by a well designed classroom. Since several curriculums involving infants and toddlers are
School holidays are the times when kids look around for playing and fun activities and parents are desperate about getting them engaged in something really productive and educational. On the other hand, holidays are often the times when there are a lot of other expenses too. Kids never want to be locked at home; they need activities that cost you hundreds of dollars out of your pocket.
However, there are few other activities which don’t cost you an earth, but your kids will surely enjoy them. From making their own educational toys to getting involved in scientific experiments, there are plenty of fun and educational activities for your kids to spend productive time during holidays.
Check out locally
The best option is to check out what all things are happening around your local area during school holidays for kids to get engaged. There may be different galleries, libraries, and community centres arranging special holiday packages for kids. Most of them are free CSR initiatives, whereas some others charge a nominal facilitation fee. Kids will surely love this opportunity to get engaged in activities with friends of their age and these are also really
Your science paper will usually have to be divided into sections, and the sections will differ depending on what type of science essay you are writing and the level at which you are writing it. Here is a brief outline of each section, though you should check with your professor to find out the most desired structure.
You need to show what research methods you used. You need to pick an approved process and then justify why you picked it. You need to explain why it is the right process for the job. You need to do a similar thing if you are writing a research paper.
This section is used to gently introduce your reader to the content of your paper. It is not your job to explain your essay, but you will need to give clues as to the content and maybe explain why the reader would want to read your paper. You need to keep this section very concise as you may use the rest of your paper to fully explain your essay.
The hypothesis is usually nestled somewhere within your introduction. It is usually a question you are aiming to answer or it details
The phrase “synthetic biology” may sound like science fiction, but a small group of biology students at the University of Virginia say this field will play an important role in our lives over the next few years.
Scientists in the field are finding ways to produce cheap anti-malarial drugs, use bacteria to clean up chemical waste and reduce resistance to antibiotic drugs.
In the future, people could be eating vanilla and cheese produced from yeast or using laundry detergent and makeup derived from algae.
“It’s something we’re going to see a lot more of,” said Tom Moss, a second-year biology major. “(And) there’s a lot of misconceptions about it.”
[SPECIAL REPORT: STEM Solutions]
Moss is in a small group of students and faculty members who organized a recent public meeting on synthetic biology at UVa’s OpenGrounds building. Their goal is to help the public understand the importance of this field.
Synthetic biology is related to — but not synonymous with — genetic modification. While genetic modification may involve replacing or changing individual genes within an organism, synthetic biology involves far more extensive changes such as completely re-engineering the genomes of microorganisms to create “designer” proteins or engineer viruses to attack
Exposure to a common plastics’ chemical during pregnancy may have effects on genital development in baby boys, a small study hints.
Researchers found that baby boys born to moms with greater exposure to a chemical called DiNP tended to have a shorter anogenital distance — the space between the genitals and anus. Anogenital distance is set in the womb, and it’s considered a marker of exposure to androgens (“male” hormones) during pregnancy.
The researchers said their findings, published online Oct. 29 in Environmental Health Perspectives, add to concerns about the possible effects of certain plasticizers on the male reproductive system.
But the authors also acknowledged that the study points to a correlation between DiNP and boys’ anogenital distance — and not necessarily a cause-and-effect relationship.
“We need more studies,” said Shanna Swan, a professor of preventive medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. “This is one study of a small number of boys.”
Still, she said the findings are in line with some research on certain other chemicals in the same group — known collectively as phthalates.
Phthalates are added to plastics to make them more flexible and difficult to break. They
Your chances of being diagnosed with early breast cancer, as well as surviving it, vary greatly depending on your race and ethnicity, a new study indicates.
“It had been assumed lately that we could explain the differences in outcome by access to care,” said lead researcher Dr. Steven Narod, Canada research chair in breast cancer and a professor of public health at the University of Toronto. In previous studies, experts have found that some ethnic groups have better access to care.
But that’s not the whole story, Narod found. His team discovered that racially based biological differences, such as the spread of cancer to the lymph nodes or having an aggressive type of breast cancer known as triple-negative, explain much of the disparity.
“Ethnicity is just as likely to predict who will live and who will die from early breast cancer as other factors, like the cancer’s appearance and treatment,” Narod said.
In his study, nearly 374,000 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2011 were followed for about three years.
The researchers divided the women into eight racial or ethnic groups and looked at the types of tumors, how aggressive the
Quitting smoking is notoriously tough, and some smokers may try different approaches for years before they succeed, if ever.
But new research suggests that someday, a simple test might point smokers toward the quitting strategy that’s best for them.
It’s been long theorized that some smokers are genetically predisposed to process and rid the body of nicotine more quickly than others. And now a new study suggests that slower metabolizers seeking to kick the habit will probably have a better treatment experience with the aid of a nicotine patch than the quit-smoking drug varenicline (Chantix).
The finding is based on the tracking of more than 1,200 smokers undergoing smoking-cessation treatment. Blood tests indicated that more than 660 were relatively slow nicotine metabolizers, while the rest were normal nicotine metabolizers.
Over an 11-week trial, participants were prescribed a nicotine patch, Chantix, or a non-medicinal “placebo.”
As reported online Jan. 11 in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, normal metabolizers fared better using the drug compared with the nicotine patch.
Specifically, 40 percent of normal metabolizers who were given the drug option were still not smoking at the end of their treatment, the study found. This compared with just 22 percent
Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease currently endemic in more than 10 countries. According to the World Health Organization, 390 million people are infected by dengue every year.
The disease can be caused by one of the four types of dengue virus transmitted by the Aedes aegypty mosquito, the main vector for dengue. In humans, symptoms of dengue infection include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain and a characteristic skin rash. In some cases, dengue infection can take a dangerous turn and develop into a life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
A tetravalent vaccine that could protect against all four types of dengue virus is not available–and neither is one that could protect against a single type, for that matter. What is more, no specific treatment against dengue exists. Thus, researchers have sought strategies to reduce mosquito habitat or replication. Unfortunately, none of the approaches developed so far has been successful in eradicating the disease or diminishing the odds of being bitten by the mosquito.
NS1 is one of the seven nonstructural proteins composing the dengue virus and more specifically its replication machinery. It is an abundant protein detected in the serum of infected patients and used as a
A single neuron in a normal adult brain likely has more than a thousand genetic mutations that are not present in the cells that surround it, according to new research from Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) scientists. The majority of these mutations appear to arise while genes are in active use, after brain development is complete.
“We found that the genes that the brain uses most of all are the genes that are most fragile and most likely to be mutated,” says Christopher Walsh, an HHMI investigator at Boston Children’s Hospital who led the research. Walsh, Peter Park, a computational biologist at Harvard Medical School, and their colleagues reported their findings in the October 2, 2015, issue of the journal Science.
It’s not yet clear how these naturally occurring mutations impact the function of a normal brain, or to what extent they contribute to disease. But by tracing the distribution of mutations among cells, Walsh and his colleagues are already learning new information about how the human brain develops. “The genome of a single neuron is like an archeological record of that cell,” Walsh says. “We can read its lineage in the pattern of shared mutations. We now know
Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have determined the structure of a key part of the enzyme telomerase, which is active in most cancers and enables cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. The new findings, published October 5 in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, reveal how the enzyme carries out a crucial function involved in protecting the ends of chromosomes.
Repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, serve as protective caps (often compared to the plastic tips on shoelaces). As cells divide, their telomeres get progressively shorter, until eventually the cells stop dividing. The telomerase enzyme lengthens telomeres by adding more of the repetitive DNA sequence. It is active in cells that need to keep dividing indefinitely, such as stem cells, and in about 90 percent of malignant tumors.
“Since the discovery of telomerase and its over-activation in cancers, people have recognized the huge therapeutic potential for anticancer drugs that target telomerase. But there still is no such drug in the clinic, and part of the reason is our lack of understanding of the detailed structure of the enzyme,” said Michael Stone, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UC Santa Cruz and senior author of the paper.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMRD) could be treated by transplanting photoreceptors produced by the directed differentiation of stem cells, thanks to findings published today by Professor Gilbert Bernier of the University of Montreal and its affiliated Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. ARMD is a common eye problem caused by the loss of cones. Bernier’s team has developed a highly effective in vitro technique for producing light sensitive retina cells from human embryonic stem cells. “Our method has the capacity to differentiate 80% of the stem cells into pure cones,” Professor Gilbert explained. “Within 45 days, the cones that we allowed to grow towards confluence spontaneously formed organised retinal tissue that was 150 microns thick. This has never been achieved before.”
In order to verify the technique, Bernier injected clusters of retinal cells into the eyes of healthy mice. The transplanted photoreceptors migrated naturally within the retina of their host. “Cone transplant represents a therapeutic solution for retinal pathologies caused by the degeneration of photoreceptor cells,” Bernier explained. “To date, it has been difficult to obtain great quantities of human cones.” His discovery offers a way to overcome this problem, offering hope that treatments may be developed for currently non-curable degenerative diseases, like
Cells of multicellular organisms contain identical genetic material (the genome) yet can have drastic differences in their structural arrangements and functions. This variation of the distinct cell types comes from the differential expression of genes, which is controlled by interplay between different regulators within the cells, such as transcription factors, the transcription machinery, and the “epigenetic” modifications (which do not change the underlying genetic code) that occur on the DNA and protein factors within chromatin.
In a study co-directed by Roderic Guigó, a CRG principal investigator and a UPF professor, and Montserrat Corominas, at the Department of Genetics of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the Institute of Biomedicine of the UB (IBUB), the scientists show that the chromatin marks are irrelevant for regulating genes that are expressed in a punctual manner during development. The results of this study contrast sharply with the generally accepted view of the key roles that these epigenetic marks play in regulating gene expression.
The project was based on gene expression data from the modENCODE project, which aims to provide the scientific community with a comprehensive encyclopedia of functional elements of the genome of model organisms. In this case, the researchers used data about